Recent advances in upper limb prostheses have led to significant improvements in the number of movements provided by the robotic limb. However, the method for controlling multiple degrees of freedom via user-generated signals remains challenging. To address this issue, various machine learning controllers have been developed to better predict movement intent. As these controllers become more intelligent and take on more autonomy in the system, the traditional approach of representing the human-machine interface as a human controlling a tool becomes limiting. One possible approach to improve the understanding of these interfaces is to model them as collaborative, multi-agent systems through the lens of joint action. The field of joint action has been commonly applied to two human partners who are trying to work jointly together to achieve a task, such as singing or moving a table together, by effecting coordinated change in their shared environment. In this work, we compare different prosthesis controllers (proportional electromyography with sequential switching, pattern recognition, and adaptive switching) in terms of how they present the hallmarks of joint action. The results of the comparison lead to a new perspective for understanding how existing myoelectric systems relate to each other, along with recommendations for how to improve these systems by increasing the collaborative communication between each partner.
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Digital platforms, including online forums and helplines, have emerged as avenues of support for caregivers suffering from postpartum mental health distress. Understanding support seekers' experiences as shared on these platforms could provide crucial insight into caregivers' needs during this vulnerable time. In the current work, we provide a descriptive analysis of the concerns, psychological states, and motivations shared by healthy and distressed postpartum support seekers on two digital platforms, a one-on-one digital helpline and a publicly available online forum. Using a combination of human annotations, dictionary models and unsupervised techniques, we find stark differences between the experiences of distressed and healthy mothers. Distressed mothers described interpersonal problems and a lack of support, with 8.60% - 14.56% reporting severe symptoms including suicidal ideation. In contrast, the majority of healthy mothers described childcare issues, such as questions about breastfeeding or sleeping, and reported no severe mental health concerns. Across the two digital platforms, we found that distressed mothers shared similar content. However, the patterns of speech and affect shared by distressed mothers differed between the helpline vs. the online forum, suggesting the design of these platforms may shape meaningful measures of their support-seeking experiences. Our results provide new insight into the experiences of caregivers suffering from postpartum mental health distress. We conclude by discussing methodological considerations for understanding content shared by support seekers and design considerations for the next generation of support tools for postpartum parents.
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In medical image analysis, automated segmentation of multi-component anatomical structures, which often have a spectrum of potential anomalies and pathologies, is a challenging task. In this work, we develop a multi-step approach using U-Net-based neural networks to initially detect anomalies (bone marrow lesions, bone cysts) in the distal femur, proximal tibia and patella from 3D magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee in individuals with varying grades of osteoarthritis. Subsequently, the extracted data are used for downstream tasks involving semantic segmentation of individual bone and cartilage volumes as well as bone anomalies. For anomaly detection, the U-Net-based models were developed to reconstruct the bone profiles of the femur and tibia in images via inpainting so anomalous bone regions could be replaced with close to normal appearances. The reconstruction error was used to detect bone anomalies. A second anomaly-aware network, which was compared to anomaly-na\"ive segmentation networks, was used to provide a final automated segmentation of the femoral, tibial and patellar bones and cartilages from the knee MR images containing a spectrum of bone anomalies. The anomaly-aware segmentation approach provided up to 58% reduction in Hausdorff distances for bone segmentations compared to the results from the anomaly-na\"ive segmentation networks. In addition, the anomaly-aware networks were able to detect bone lesions in the MR images with greater sensitivity and specificity (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] up to 0.896) compared to the anomaly-na\"ive segmentation networks (AUC up to 0.874).
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最近一年带来了电动汽车(EV)和相关基础设施/通信的大幅进步。入侵检测系统(ID)被广泛部署在此类关键基础架构中的异常检测。本文提出了一个可解释的异常检测系统(RX-ADS),用于在电动汽车中的CAN协议中进行入侵检测。贡献包括:1)基于窗口的特征提取方法; 2)基于深度自动编码器的异常检测方法; 3)基于对抗机器学习的解释生成方法。在两个基准CAN数据集上测试了提出的方法:OTID和汽车黑客。将RX-ADS的异常检测性能与这些数据集的最新方法进行了比较:HID和GID。 RX-ADS方法提出的性能与HIDS方法(OTIDS数据集)相当,并且具有超出HID和GID方法(CAR HACKING DATASET)的表现。此外,所提出的方法能够为因各种侵入而引起的异常行为产生解释。这些解释后来通过域专家使用的信息来检测异常来验证。 RX-ADS的其他优点包括:1)该方法可以在未标记的数据上进行培训; 2)解释有助于专家理解异常和根课程分析,并有助于AI模型调试和诊断,最终改善了对AI系统的用户信任。
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与传统的手工制作方法相比,卷积神经网络(CNN)表现出出色的压缩感测(CS)性能。但是,它们在通用性,归纳偏见和难以建模长距离关系方面受到了广泛的限制。变压器神经网络(TNN)通过实施旨在捕获输入之间依赖性的注意机制来克服此类问题。但是,高分辨率任务通常需要视觉变压器(VIT)将图像分解为基于贴片的令牌,将输入限制为固有的本地环境。我们提出了一种新型的图像分解,将图像自然嵌入到低分辨率输入中。这些万花筒令牌(KD)以与基于贴片的方法相同的计算成本提供了一种全球关注的机制。为了展示这一发展,我们用TNN块替换了众所周知的CS-MRI神经网络中的CNN组件,并证明了KD提供的改进。我们还提出了图像令牌的合奏,从而提高了整体图像质量并降低了模型大小。提供补充材料:https://github.com/uqmarlonbran/tcs.git
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Data scarcity is common in deep learning models for medical image segmentation. Previous works proposed multi-dataset learning, either simultaneously or via transfer learning to expand training sets. However, medical image datasets have diverse-sized images and features, and developing a model simultaneously for multiple datasets is challenging. This work proposes Fabric Image Representation Encoding Network (FIRENet), a universal architecture for simultaneous multi-dataset segmentation and transfer learning involving arbitrary numbers of dataset(s). To handle different-sized image and feature, a 3D fabric module is used to encapsulate many multi-scale sub-architectures. An optimal combination of these sub-architectures can be implicitly learnt to best suit the target dataset(s). For diverse-scale feature extraction, a 3D extension of atrous spatial pyramid pooling (ASPP3D) is used in each fabric node for a fine-grained coverage of rich-scale image features. In the first experiment, FIRENet performed 3D universal bone segmentation of multiple musculoskeletal datasets of the human knee, shoulder and hip joints and exhibited excellent simultaneous multi-dataset segmentation performance. When tested for transfer learning, FIRENet further exhibited excellent single dataset performance (when pre-training on a prostate dataset), as well as significantly improved universal bone segmentation performance. The following experiment involves the simultaneous segmentation of the 10 Medical Segmentation Decathlon (MSD) challenge datasets. FIRENet demonstrated good multi-dataset segmentation results and inter-dataset adaptability of highly diverse image sizes. In both experiments, FIRENet's streamlined multi-dataset learning with one unified network that requires no hyper-parameter tuning.
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Designing experiments often requires balancing between learning about the true treatment effects and earning from allocating more samples to the superior treatment. While optimal algorithms for the Multi-Armed Bandit Problem (MABP) provide allocation policies that optimally balance learning and earning, they tend to be computationally expensive. The Gittins Index (GI) is a solution to the MABP that can simultaneously attain optimality and computationally efficiency goals, and it has been recently used in experiments with Bernoulli and Gaussian rewards. For the first time, we present a modification of the GI rule that can be used in experiments with exponentially-distributed rewards. We report its performance in simulated 2- armed and 3-armed experiments. Compared to traditional non-adaptive designs, our novel GI modified design shows operating characteristics comparable in learning (e.g. statistical power) but substantially better in earning (e.g. direct benefits). This illustrates the potential that designs using a GI approach to allocate participants have to improve participant benefits, increase efficiencies, and reduce experimental costs in adaptive multi-armed experiments with exponential rewards.
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Quadruped robots are currently used in industrial robotics as mechanical aid to automate several routine tasks. However, presently, the usage of such a robot in a domestic setting is still very much a part of the research. This paper discusses the understanding and virtual simulation of such a robot capable of detecting and understanding human emotions, generating its gait, and responding via sounds and expression on a screen. To this end, we use a combination of reinforcement learning and software engineering concepts to simulate a quadruped robot that can understand emotions, navigate through various terrains and detect sound sources, and respond to emotions using audio-visual feedback. This paper aims to establish the framework of simulating a quadruped robot that is emotionally intelligent and can primarily respond to audio-visual stimuli using motor or audio response. The emotion detection from the speech was not as performant as ERANNs or Zeta Policy learning, still managing an accuracy of 63.5%. The video emotion detection system produced results that are almost at par with the state of the art, with an accuracy of 99.66%. Due to its "on-policy" learning process, the PPO algorithm was extremely rapid to learn, allowing the simulated dog to demonstrate a remarkably seamless gait across the different cadences and variations. This enabled the quadruped robot to respond to generated stimuli, allowing us to conclude that it functions as predicted and satisfies the aim of this work.
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Real-world robotic grasping can be done robustly if a complete 3D Point Cloud Data (PCD) of an object is available. However, in practice, PCDs are often incomplete when objects are viewed from few and sparse viewpoints before the grasping action, leading to the generation of wrong or inaccurate grasp poses. We propose a novel grasping strategy, named 3DSGrasp, that predicts the missing geometry from the partial PCD to produce reliable grasp poses. Our proposed PCD completion network is a Transformer-based encoder-decoder network with an Offset-Attention layer. Our network is inherently invariant to the object pose and point's permutation, which generates PCDs that are geometrically consistent and completed properly. Experiments on a wide range of partial PCD show that 3DSGrasp outperforms the best state-of-the-art method on PCD completion tasks and largely improves the grasping success rate in real-world scenarios. The code and dataset will be made available upon acceptance.
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When robots learn reward functions using high capacity models that take raw state directly as input, they need to both learn a representation for what matters in the task -- the task ``features" -- as well as how to combine these features into a single objective. If they try to do both at once from input designed to teach the full reward function, it is easy to end up with a representation that contains spurious correlations in the data, which fails to generalize to new settings. Instead, our ultimate goal is to enable robots to identify and isolate the causal features that people actually care about and use when they represent states and behavior. Our idea is that we can tune into this representation by asking users what behaviors they consider similar: behaviors will be similar if the features that matter are similar, even if low-level behavior is different; conversely, behaviors will be different if even one of the features that matter differs. This, in turn, is what enables the robot to disambiguate between what needs to go into the representation versus what is spurious, as well as what aspects of behavior can be compressed together versus not. The notion of learning representations based on similarity has a nice parallel in contrastive learning, a self-supervised representation learning technique that maps visually similar data points to similar embeddings, where similarity is defined by a designer through data augmentation heuristics. By contrast, in order to learn the representations that people use, so we can learn their preferences and objectives, we use their definition of similarity. In simulation as well as in a user study, we show that learning through such similarity queries leads to representations that, while far from perfect, are indeed more generalizable than self-supervised and task-input alternatives.
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