Health metrics from wrist-worn devices demand an automatic dominant hand prediction to keep an accurate operation. The prediction would improve reliability, enhance the consumer experience, and encourage further development of healthcare applications. This paper aims to evaluate the use of physiological and spatiotemporal context information from a two-hand experiment to predict the wrist placement of a commercial smartwatch. The main contribution is a methodology to obtain an effective model and features from low sample rate physiological sensors and a self-reported context survey. Results show an effective dominant hand prediction using data from a single subject under real-life conditions.
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This research presents ORUGA, a method that tries to automatically optimize the readability of any text in English. The core idea behind the method is that certain factors affect the readability of a text, some of which are quantifiable (number of words, syllables, presence or absence of adverbs, and so on). The nature of these factors allows us to implement a genetic learning strategy to replace some existing words with their most suitable synonyms to facilitate optimization. In addition, this research seeks to preserve both the original text's content and form through multi-objective optimization techniques. In this way, neither the text's syntactic structure nor the semantic content of the original message is significantly distorted. An exhaustive study on a substantial number and diversity of texts confirms that our method was able to optimize the degree of readability in all cases without significantly altering their form or meaning. The source code of this approach is available at https://github.com/jorge-martinez-gil/oruga.
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There are multiple scales of abstraction from which we can describe the same image, depending on whether we are focusing on fine-grained details or a more global attribute of the image. In brain mapping, learning to automatically parse images to build representations of both small-scale features (e.g., the presence of cells or blood vessels) and global properties of an image (e.g., which brain region the image comes from) is a crucial and open challenge. However, most existing datasets and benchmarks for neuroanatomy consider only a single downstream task at a time. To bridge this gap, we introduce a new dataset, annotations, and multiple downstream tasks that provide diverse ways to readout information about brain structure and architecture from the same image. Our multi-task neuroimaging benchmark (MTNeuro) is built on volumetric, micrometer-resolution X-ray microtomography images spanning a large thalamocortical section of mouse brain, encompassing multiple cortical and subcortical regions. We generated a number of different prediction challenges and evaluated several supervised and self-supervised models for brain-region prediction and pixel-level semantic segmentation of microstructures. Our experiments not only highlight the rich heterogeneity of this dataset, but also provide insights into how self-supervised approaches can be used to learn representations that capture multiple attributes of a single image and perform well on a variety of downstream tasks. Datasets, code, and pre-trained baseline models are provided at: https://mtneuro.github.io/ .
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Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become commonplace to solve routine everyday tasks. Because of the exponential growth in medical imaging data volume and complexity, the workload on radiologists is steadily increasing. We project that the gap between the number of imaging exams and the number of expert radiologist readers required to cover this increase will continue to expand, consequently introducing a demand for AI-based tools that improve the efficiency with which radiologists can comfortably interpret these exams. AI has been shown to improve efficiency in medical-image generation, processing, and interpretation, and a variety of such AI models have been developed across research labs worldwide. However, very few of these, if any, find their way into routine clinical use, a discrepancy that reflects the divide between AI research and successful AI translation. To address the barrier to clinical deployment, we have formed MONAI Consortium, an open-source community which is building standards for AI deployment in healthcare institutions, and developing tools and infrastructure to facilitate their implementation. This report represents several years of weekly discussions and hands-on problem solving experience by groups of industry experts and clinicians in the MONAI Consortium. We identify barriers between AI-model development in research labs and subsequent clinical deployment and propose solutions. Our report provides guidance on processes which take an imaging AI model from development to clinical implementation in a healthcare institution. We discuss various AI integration points in a clinical Radiology workflow. We also present a taxonomy of Radiology AI use-cases. Through this report, we intend to educate the stakeholders in healthcare and AI (AI researchers, radiologists, imaging informaticists, and regulators) about cross-disciplinary challenges and possible solutions.
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Objective: Accurate visual classification of bladder tissue during Trans-Urethral Resection of Bladder Tumor (TURBT) procedures is essential to improve early cancer diagnosis and treatment. During TURBT interventions, White Light Imaging (WLI) and Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) techniques are used for lesion detection. Each imaging technique provides diverse visual information that allows clinicians to identify and classify cancerous lesions. Computer vision methods that use both imaging techniques could improve endoscopic diagnosis. We address the challenge of tissue classification when annotations are available only in one domain, in our case WLI, and the endoscopic images correspond to an unpaired dataset, i.e. there is no exact equivalent for every image in both NBI and WLI domains. Method: We propose a semi-surprised Generative Adversarial Network (GAN)-based method composed of three main components: a teacher network trained on the labeled WLI data; a cycle-consistency GAN to perform unpaired image-to-image translation, and a multi-input student network. To ensure the quality of the synthetic images generated by the proposed GAN we perform a detailed quantitative, and qualitative analysis with the help of specialists. Conclusion: The overall average classification accuracy, precision, and recall obtained with the proposed method for tissue classification are 0.90, 0.88, and 0.89 respectively, while the same metrics obtained in the unlabeled domain (NBI) are 0.92, 0.64, and 0.94 respectively. The quality of the generated images is reliable enough to deceive specialists. Significance: This study shows the potential of using semi-supervised GAN-based classification to improve bladder tissue classification when annotations are limited in multi-domain data.
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The number of international benchmarking competitions is steadily increasing in various fields of machine learning (ML) research and practice. So far, however, little is known about the common practice as well as bottlenecks faced by the community in tackling the research questions posed. To shed light on the status quo of algorithm development in the specific field of biomedical imaging analysis, we designed an international survey that was issued to all participants of challenges conducted in conjunction with the IEEE ISBI 2021 and MICCAI 2021 conferences (80 competitions in total). The survey covered participants' expertise and working environments, their chosen strategies, as well as algorithm characteristics. A median of 72% challenge participants took part in the survey. According to our results, knowledge exchange was the primary incentive (70%) for participation, while the reception of prize money played only a minor role (16%). While a median of 80 working hours was spent on method development, a large portion of participants stated that they did not have enough time for method development (32%). 25% perceived the infrastructure to be a bottleneck. Overall, 94% of all solutions were deep learning-based. Of these, 84% were based on standard architectures. 43% of the respondents reported that the data samples (e.g., images) were too large to be processed at once. This was most commonly addressed by patch-based training (69%), downsampling (37%), and solving 3D analysis tasks as a series of 2D tasks. K-fold cross-validation on the training set was performed by only 37% of the participants and only 50% of the participants performed ensembling based on multiple identical models (61%) or heterogeneous models (39%). 48% of the respondents applied postprocessing steps.
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How would you fairly evaluate two multi-object tracking algorithms (i.e. trackers), each one employing a different object detector? Detectors keep improving, thus trackers can make less effort to estimate object states over time. Is it then fair to compare a new tracker employing a new detector with another tracker using an old detector? In this paper, we propose a novel performance measure, named Tracking Effort Measure (TEM), to evaluate trackers that use different detectors. TEM estimates the improvement that the tracker does with respect to its input data (i.e. detections) at frame level (intra-frame complexity) and sequence level (inter-frame complexity). We evaluate TEM over well-known datasets, four trackers and eight detection sets. Results show that, unlike conventional tracking evaluation measures, TEM can quantify the effort done by the tracker with a reduced correlation on the input detections. Its implementation is publicly available online at https://github.com/vpulab/MOT-evaluation.
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Despite the impact of psychiatric disorders on clinical health, early-stage diagnosis remains a challenge. Machine learning studies have shown that classifiers tend to be overly narrow in the diagnosis prediction task. The overlap between conditions leads to high heterogeneity among participants that is not adequately captured by classification models. To address this issue, normative approaches have surged as an alternative method. By using a generative model to learn the distribution of healthy brain data patterns, we can identify the presence of pathologies as deviations or outliers from the distribution learned by the model. In particular, deep generative models showed great results as normative models to identify neurological lesions in the brain. However, unlike most neurological lesions, psychiatric disorders present subtle changes widespread in several brain regions, making these alterations challenging to identify. In this work, we evaluate the performance of transformer-based normative models to detect subtle brain changes expressed in adolescents and young adults. We trained our model on 3D MRI scans of neurotypical individuals (N=1,765). Then, we obtained the likelihood of neurotypical controls and psychiatric patients with early-stage schizophrenia from an independent dataset (N=93) from the Human Connectome Project. Using the predicted likelihood of the scans as a proxy for a normative score, we obtained an AUROC of 0.82 when assessing the difference between controls and individuals with early-stage schizophrenia. Our approach surpassed recent normative methods based on brain age and Gaussian Process, showing the promising use of deep generative models to help in individualised analyses.
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Individual particle rotation and displacement were measured in triaxial tests on transparent sand stabilized with geogrid simulants. The Cellpose U-Net model, originally developed to segment biological cells, was trained to segment images of fused quartz particles. The Score-CAM metric from the field of Explainable AI was used to validate the application of Cellpose to segment particles of fused quartz. These segmented particles were characterized in terms of Fourier shape descriptors and tracked across images. The measured particle displacements in the monotonic triaxial tests correlated with displacement fields from Digital Image Correlation (DIC). In contrast to DIC, the new technique also allows for the measurement of individual particle rotation. The particle rotation measurements were found to be repeatable across different specimens. A state boundary line between probable and improbable particle motions could be identified for a given test based on the measured particle displacements and rotations. The size of the zone of probable motions was used to quantify the effectiveness of the stabilizing inclusions. The results of repeated load tests revealed that the honeycomb inclusions used stabilized the specimens by reducing both particle displacements and rotations.
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A new Lossy Causal Temporal Convolutional Neural Network Autoencoder for anomaly detection is proposed in this work. Our framework uses a rate-distortion loss and an entropy bottleneck to learn a compressed latent representation for the task. The main idea of using a rate-distortion loss is to introduce representation flexibility that ignores or becomes robust to unlikely events with distinctive patterns, such as anomalies. These anomalies manifest as unique distortion features that can be accurately detected in testing conditions. This new architecture allows us to train a fully unsupervised model that has high accuracy in detecting anomalies from a distortion score despite being trained with some portion of unlabelled anomalous data. This setting is in stark contrast to many of the state-of-the-art unsupervised methodologies that require the model to be only trained on "normal data". We argue that this partially violates the concept of unsupervised training for anomaly detection as the model uses an informed decision that selects what is normal from abnormal for training. Additionally, there is evidence to suggest it also effects the models ability at generalisation. We demonstrate that models that succeed in the paradigm where they are only trained on normal data fail to be robust when anomalous data is injected into the training. In contrast, our compression-based approach converges to a robust representation that tolerates some anomalous distortion. The robust representation achieved by a model using a rate-distortion loss can be used in a more realistic unsupervised anomaly detection scheme.
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