In recent years, neural image compression (NIC) algorithms have shown powerful coding performance. However, most of them are not adaptive to the image content. Although several content adaptive methods have been proposed by updating the encoder-side components, the adaptability of both latents and the decoder is not well exploited. In this work, we propose a new NIC framework that improves the content adaptability on both latents and the decoder. Specifically, to remove redundancy in the latents, our content adaptive channel dropping (CACD) method automatically selects the optimal quality levels for the latents spatially and drops the redundant channels. Additionally, we propose the content adaptive feature transformation (CAFT) method to improve decoder-side content adaptability by extracting the characteristic information of the image content, which is then used to transform the features in the decoder side. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed methods with the encoder-side updating algorithm achieve the state-of-the-art performance.
translated by 谷歌翻译
The number of international benchmarking competitions is steadily increasing in various fields of machine learning (ML) research and practice. So far, however, little is known about the common practice as well as bottlenecks faced by the community in tackling the research questions posed. To shed light on the status quo of algorithm development in the specific field of biomedical imaging analysis, we designed an international survey that was issued to all participants of challenges conducted in conjunction with the IEEE ISBI 2021 and MICCAI 2021 conferences (80 competitions in total). The survey covered participants' expertise and working environments, their chosen strategies, as well as algorithm characteristics. A median of 72% challenge participants took part in the survey. According to our results, knowledge exchange was the primary incentive (70%) for participation, while the reception of prize money played only a minor role (16%). While a median of 80 working hours was spent on method development, a large portion of participants stated that they did not have enough time for method development (32%). 25% perceived the infrastructure to be a bottleneck. Overall, 94% of all solutions were deep learning-based. Of these, 84% were based on standard architectures. 43% of the respondents reported that the data samples (e.g., images) were too large to be processed at once. This was most commonly addressed by patch-based training (69%), downsampling (37%), and solving 3D analysis tasks as a series of 2D tasks. K-fold cross-validation on the training set was performed by only 37% of the participants and only 50% of the participants performed ensembling based on multiple identical models (61%) or heterogeneous models (39%). 48% of the respondents applied postprocessing steps.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Recent studies have shown that CLIP has achieved remarkable success in performing zero-shot inference while its fine-tuning performance is not satisfactory. In this paper, we identify that fine-tuning performance is significantly impacted by hyper-parameter choices. We examine various key hyper-parameters and empirically evaluate their impact in fine-tuning CLIP for classification tasks through a comprehensive study. We find that the fine-tuning performance of CLIP is substantially underestimated. Equipped with hyper-parameter refinement, we demonstrate CLIP itself is better or at least competitive in fine-tuning compared with large-scale supervised pre-training approaches or latest works that use CLIP as prediction targets in Masked Image Modeling. Specifically, CLIP ViT-Base/16 and CLIP ViT-Large/14 can achieve 85.7%,88.0% finetuning Top-1 accuracy on the ImageNet-1K dataset . These observations challenge the conventional conclusion that CLIP is not suitable for fine-tuning, and motivate us to rethink recently proposed improvements based on CLIP. We will release our code publicly at \url{https://github.com/LightDXY/FT-CLIP}.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Knowledge distillation is often used to transfer knowledge from a strong teacher model to a relatively weak student model. Traditional knowledge distillation methods include response-based methods and feature-based methods. Response-based methods are used the most widely but suffer from lower upper limit of model performance, while feature-based methods have constraints on the vocabularies and tokenizers. In this paper, we propose a tokenizer-free method liberal feature-based distillation (LEAD). LEAD aligns the distribution between teacher model and student model, which is effective, extendable, portable and has no requirements on vocabularies, tokenizer, or model architecture. Extensive experiments show the effectiveness of LEAD on several widely-used benchmarks, including MS MARCO Passage, TREC Passage 19, TREC Passage 20, MS MARCO Document, TREC Document 19 and TREC Document 20.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Copy-Paste is a simple and effective data augmentation strategy for instance segmentation. By randomly pasting object instances onto new background images, it creates new training data for free and significantly boosts the segmentation performance, especially for rare object categories. Although diverse, high-quality object instances used in Copy-Paste result in more performance gain, previous works utilize object instances either from human-annotated instance segmentation datasets or rendered from 3D object models, and both approaches are too expensive to scale up to obtain good diversity. In this paper, we revisit Copy-Paste at scale with the power of newly emerged zero-shot recognition models (e.g., CLIP) and text2image models (e.g., StableDiffusion). We demonstrate for the first time that using a text2image model to generate images or zero-shot recognition model to filter noisily crawled images for different object categories is a feasible way to make Copy-Paste truly scalable. To make such success happen, we design a data acquisition and processing framework, dubbed "X-Paste", upon which a systematic study is conducted. On the LVIS dataset, X-Paste provides impressive improvements over the strong baseline CenterNet2 with Swin-L as the backbone. Specifically, it archives +2.6 box AP and +2.1 mask AP gains on all classes and even more significant gains with +6.8 box AP +6.5 mask AP on long-tail classes.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Safe and efficient co-planning of multiple robots in pedestrian participation environments is promising for applications. In this work, a novel multi-robot social-aware efficient cooperative planner that on the basis of off-policy multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) under partial dimension-varying observation and imperfect perception conditions is proposed. We adopt temporal-spatial graph (TSG)-based social encoder to better extract the importance of social relation between each robot and the pedestrians in its field of view (FOV). Also, we introduce K-step lookahead reward setting in multi-robot RL framework to avoid aggressive, intrusive, short-sighted, and unnatural motion decisions generated by robots. Moreover, we improve the traditional centralized critic network with multi-head global attention module to better aggregates local observation information among different robots to guide the process of individual policy update. Finally, multi-group experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed cooperative motion planner.
translated by 谷歌翻译
High-definition (HD) semantic map generation of the environment is an essential component of autonomous driving. Existing methods have achieved good performance in this task by fusing different sensor modalities, such as LiDAR and camera. However, current works are based on raw data or network feature-level fusion and only consider short-range HD map generation, limiting their deployment to realistic autonomous driving applications. In this paper, we focus on the task of building the HD maps in both short ranges, i.e., within 30 m, and also predicting long-range HD maps up to 90 m, which is required by downstream path planning and control tasks to improve the smoothness and safety of autonomous driving. To this end, we propose a novel network named SuperFusion, exploiting the fusion of LiDAR and camera data at multiple levels. We benchmark our SuperFusion on the nuScenes dataset and a self-recorded dataset and show that it outperforms the state-of-the-art baseline methods with large margins. Furthermore, we propose a new metric to evaluate the long-range HD map prediction and apply the generated HD map to a downstream path planning task. The results show that by using the long-range HD maps predicted by our method, we can make better path planning for autonomous vehicles. The code will be available at https://github.com/haomo-ai/SuperFusion.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Achieving accurate and automated tumor segmentation plays an important role in both clinical practice and radiomics research. Segmentation in medicine is now often performed manually by experts, which is a laborious, expensive and error-prone task. Manual annotation relies heavily on the experience and knowledge of these experts. In addition, there is much intra- and interobserver variation. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop a method that can automatically segment tumor target regions. In this paper, we propose a deep learning segmentation method based on multimodal positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), which combines the high sensitivity of PET and the precise anatomical information of CT. We design an improved spatial attention network(ISA-Net) to increase the accuracy of PET or CT in detecting tumors, which uses multi-scale convolution operation to extract feature information and can highlight the tumor region location information and suppress the non-tumor region location information. In addition, our network uses dual-channel inputs in the coding stage and fuses them in the decoding stage, which can take advantage of the differences and complementarities between PET and CT. We validated the proposed ISA-Net method on two clinical datasets, a soft tissue sarcoma(STS) and a head and neck tumor(HECKTOR) dataset, and compared with other attention methods for tumor segmentation. The DSC score of 0.8378 on STS dataset and 0.8076 on HECKTOR dataset show that ISA-Net method achieves better segmentation performance and has better generalization. Conclusions: The method proposed in this paper is based on multi-modal medical image tumor segmentation, which can effectively utilize the difference and complementarity of different modes. The method can also be applied to other multi-modal data or single-modal data by proper adjustment.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Supervised learning aims to train a classifier under the assumption that training and test data are from the same distribution. To ease the above assumption, researchers have studied a more realistic setting: out-of-distribution (OOD) detection, where test data may come from classes that are unknown during training (i.e., OOD data). Due to the unavailability and diversity of OOD data, good generalization ability is crucial for effective OOD detection algorithms. To study the generalization of OOD detection, in this paper, we investigate the probably approximately correct (PAC) learning theory of OOD detection, which is proposed by researchers as an open problem. First, we find a necessary condition for the learnability of OOD detection. Then, using this condition, we prove several impossibility theorems for the learnability of OOD detection under some scenarios. Although the impossibility theorems are frustrating, we find that some conditions of these impossibility theorems may not hold in some practical scenarios. Based on this observation, we next give several necessary and sufficient conditions to characterize the learnability of OOD detection in some practical scenarios. Lastly, we also offer theoretical supports for several representative OOD detection works based on our OOD theory.
translated by 谷歌翻译
Federated learning (FL) enables the building of robust and generalizable AI models by leveraging diverse datasets from multiple collaborators without centralizing the data. We created NVIDIA FLARE as an open-source software development kit (SDK) to make it easier for data scientists to use FL in their research and real-world applications. The SDK includes solutions for state-of-the-art FL algorithms and federated machine learning approaches, which facilitate building workflows for distributed learning across enterprises and enable platform developers to create a secure, privacy-preserving offering for multiparty collaboration utilizing homomorphic encryption or differential privacy. The SDK is a lightweight, flexible, and scalable Python package, and allows researchers to bring their data science workflows implemented in any training libraries (PyTorch, TensorFlow, XGBoost, or even NumPy) and apply them in real-world FL settings. This paper introduces the key design principles of FLARE and illustrates some use cases (e.g., COVID analysis) with customizable FL workflows that implement different privacy-preserving algorithms. Code is available at https://github.com/NVIDIA/NVFlare.
translated by 谷歌翻译