Knowledge tracing (KT) aims to leverage students' learning histories to estimate their mastery levels on a set of pre-defined skills, based on which the corresponding future performance can be accurately predicted. In practice, a student's learning history comprises answers to sets of massed questions, each known as a session, rather than merely being a sequence of independent answers. Theoretically, within and across these sessions, students' learning dynamics can be very different. Therefore, how to effectively model the dynamics of students' knowledge states within and across the sessions is crucial for handling the KT problem. Most existing KT models treat student's learning records as a single continuing sequence, without capturing the sessional shift of students' knowledge state. To address the above issue, we propose a novel hierarchical transformer model, named HiTSKT, comprises an interaction(-level) encoder to capture the knowledge a student acquires within a session, and a session(-level) encoder to summarise acquired knowledge across the past sessions. To predict an interaction in the current session, a knowledge retriever integrates the summarised past-session knowledge with the previous interactions' information into proper knowledge representations. These representations are then used to compute the student's current knowledge state. Additionally, to model the student's long-term forgetting behaviour across the sessions, a power-law-decay attention mechanism is designed and deployed in the session encoder, allowing it to emphasize more on the recent sessions. Extensive experiments on three public datasets demonstrate that HiTSKT achieves new state-of-the-art performance on all the datasets compared with six state-of-the-art KT models.
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Although many studies have successfully applied transfer learning to medical image segmentation, very few of them have investigated the selection strategy when multiple source tasks are available for transfer. In this paper, we propose a prior knowledge guided and transferability based framework to select the best source tasks among a collection of brain image segmentation tasks, to improve the transfer learning performance on the given target task. The framework consists of modality analysis, RoI (region of interest) analysis, and transferability estimation, such that the source task selection can be refined step by step. Specifically, we adapt the state-of-the-art analytical transferability estimation metrics to medical image segmentation tasks and further show that their performance can be significantly boosted by filtering candidate source tasks based on modality and RoI characteristics. Our experiments on brain matter, brain tumor, and white matter hyperintensities segmentation datasets reveal that transferring from different tasks under the same modality is often more successful than transferring from the same task under different modalities. Furthermore, within the same modality, transferring from the source task that has stronger RoI shape similarity with the target task can significantly improve the final transfer performance. And such similarity can be captured using the Structural Similarity index in the label space.
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Modern deep neural networks have achieved superhuman performance in tasks from image classification to game play. Surprisingly, these various complex systems with massive amounts of parameters exhibit the same remarkable structural properties in their last-layer features and classifiers across canonical datasets. This phenomenon is known as "Neural Collapse," and it was discovered empirically by Papyan et al. \cite{Papyan20}. Recent papers have theoretically shown the global solutions to the training network problem under a simplified "unconstrained feature model" exhibiting this phenomenon. We take a step further and prove the Neural Collapse occurrence for deep linear network for the popular mean squared error (MSE) and cross entropy (CE) loss. Furthermore, we extend our research to imbalanced data for MSE loss and present the first geometric analysis for Neural Collapse under this setting.
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In this paper we derive a PAC-Bayesian-Like error bound for a class of stochastic dynamical systems with inputs, namely, for linear time-invariant stochastic state-space models (stochastic LTI systems for short). This class of systems is widely used in control engineering and econometrics, in particular, they represent a special case of recurrent neural networks. In this paper we 1) formalize the learning problem for stochastic LTI systems with inputs, 2) derive a PAC-Bayesian-Like error bound for such systems, 3) discuss various consequences of this error bound.
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Denoising Diffusion Probabilistic Models (DDPMs) are emerging in text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis because of their strong capability of generating high-fidelity samples. However, their iterative refinement process in high-dimensional data space results in slow inference speed, which restricts their application in real-time systems. Previous works have explored speeding up by minimizing the number of inference steps but at the cost of sample quality. In this work, to improve the inference speed for DDPM-based TTS model while achieving high sample quality, we propose ResGrad, a lightweight diffusion model which learns to refine the output spectrogram of an existing TTS model (e.g., FastSpeech 2) by predicting the residual between the model output and the corresponding ground-truth speech. ResGrad has several advantages: 1) Compare with other acceleration methods for DDPM which need to synthesize speech from scratch, ResGrad reduces the complexity of task by changing the generation target from ground-truth mel-spectrogram to the residual, resulting into a more lightweight model and thus a smaller real-time factor. 2) ResGrad is employed in the inference process of the existing TTS model in a plug-and-play way, without re-training this model. We verify ResGrad on the single-speaker dataset LJSpeech and two more challenging datasets with multiple speakers (LibriTTS) and high sampling rate (VCTK). Experimental results show that in comparison with other speed-up methods of DDPMs: 1) ResGrad achieves better sample quality with the same inference speed measured by real-time factor; 2) with similar speech quality, ResGrad synthesizes speech faster than baseline methods by more than 10 times. Audio samples are available at https://resgrad1.github.io/.
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Deep learning has been widely used for protein engineering. However, it is limited by the lack of sufficient experimental data to train an accurate model for predicting the functional fitness of high-order mutants. Here, we develop SESNet, a supervised deep-learning model to predict the fitness for protein mutants by leveraging both sequence and structure information, and exploiting attention mechanism. Our model integrates local evolutionary context from homologous sequences, the global evolutionary context encoding rich semantic from the universal protein sequence space and the structure information accounting for the microenvironment around each residue in a protein. We show that SESNet outperforms state-of-the-art models for predicting the sequence-function relationship on 26 deep mutational scanning datasets. More importantly, we propose a data augmentation strategy by leveraging the data from unsupervised models to pre-train our model. After that, our model can achieve strikingly high accuracy in prediction of the fitness of protein mutants, especially for the higher order variants (> 4 mutation sites), when finetuned by using only a small number of experimental mutation data (<50). The strategy proposed is of great practical value as the required experimental effort, i.e., producing a few tens of experimental mutation data on a given protein, is generally affordable by an ordinary biochemical group and can be applied on almost any protein.
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Deep neural networks (DNNs) are found to be vulnerable to adversarial attacks, and various methods have been proposed for the defense. Among these methods, adversarial training has been drawing increasing attention because of its simplicity and effectiveness. However, the performance of the adversarial training is greatly limited by the architectures of target DNNs, which often makes the resulting DNNs with poor accuracy and unsatisfactory robustness. To address this problem, we propose DSARA to automatically search for the neural architectures that are accurate and robust after adversarial training. In particular, we design a novel cell-based search space specially for adversarial training, which improves the accuracy and the robustness upper bound of the searched architectures by carefully designing the placement of the cells and the proportional relationship of the filter numbers. Then we propose a two-stage search strategy to search for both accurate and robust neural architectures. At the first stage, the architecture parameters are optimized to minimize the adversarial loss, which makes full use of the effectiveness of the adversarial training in enhancing the robustness. At the second stage, the architecture parameters are optimized to minimize both the natural loss and the adversarial loss utilizing the proposed multi-objective adversarial training method, so that the searched neural architectures are both accurate and robust. We evaluate the proposed algorithm under natural data and various adversarial attacks, which reveals the superiority of the proposed method in terms of both accurate and robust architectures. We also conclude that accurate and robust neural architectures tend to deploy very different structures near the input and the output, which has great practical significance on both hand-crafting and automatically designing of accurate and robust neural architectures.
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People with diabetes are more likely to develop diabetic retinopathy (DR) than healthy people. However, DR is the leading cause of blindness. At present, the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy mainly relies on the experienced clinician to recognize the fine features in color fundus images. This is a time-consuming task. Therefore, in this paper, to promote the development of UW-OCTA DR automatic detection, we propose a novel semi-supervised semantic segmentation method for UW-OCTA DR image grade assessment. This method, first, uses the MAE algorithm to perform semi-supervised pre-training on the UW-OCTA DR grade assessment dataset to mine the supervised information in the UW-OCTA images, thereby alleviating the need for labeled data. Secondly, to more fully mine the lesion features of each region in the UW-OCTA image, this paper constructs a cross-algorithm ensemble DR tissue segmentation algorithm by deploying three algorithms with different visual feature processing strategies. The algorithm contains three sub-algorithms, namely pre-trained MAE, ConvNeXt, and SegFormer. Based on the initials of these three sub-algorithms, the algorithm can be named MCS-DRNet. Finally, we use the MCS-DRNet algorithm as an inspector to check and revise the results of the preliminary evaluation of the DR grade evaluation algorithm. The experimental results show that the mean dice similarity coefficient of MCS-DRNet v1 and v2 are 0.5161 and 0.5544, respectively. The quadratic weighted kappa of the DR grading evaluation is 0.7559. Our code will be released soon.
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Neural Radiance Field (NeRF) is a powerful tool to faithfully generate novel views for scenes with only sparse captured images. Despite its strong capability for representing 3D scenes and their appearance, its editing ability is very limited. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective extension of vanilla NeRF, named PaletteNeRF, to enable efficient color editing on NeRF-represented scenes. Motivated by recent palette-based image decomposition works, we approximate each pixel color as a sum of palette colors modulated by additive weights. Instead of predicting pixel colors as in vanilla NeRFs, our method predicts additive weights. The underlying NeRF backbone could also be replaced with more recent NeRF models such as KiloNeRF to achieve real-time editing. Experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves efficient, view-consistent, and artifact-free color editing on a wide range of NeRF-represented scenes.
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Out-of-Distribution (OOD) detection, i.e., identifying whether an input is sampled from a novel distribution other than the training distribution, is a critical task for safely deploying machine learning systems in the open world. Recently, post hoc detection utilizing pre-trained models has shown promising performance and can be scaled to large-scale problems. This advance raises a natural question: Can we leverage the diversity of multiple pre-trained models to improve the performance of post hoc detection methods? In this work, we propose a detection enhancement method by ensembling multiple detection decisions derived from a zoo of pre-trained models. Our approach uses the p-value instead of the commonly used hard threshold and leverages a fundamental framework of multiple hypothesis testing to control the true positive rate of In-Distribution (ID) data. We focus on the usage of model zoos and provide systematic empirical comparisons with current state-of-the-art methods on various OOD detection benchmarks. The proposed ensemble scheme shows consistent improvement compared to single-model detectors and significantly outperforms the current competitive methods. Our method substantially improves the relative performance by 65.40% and 26.96% on the CIFAR10 and ImageNet benchmarks.
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