In this short technical note we propose a baseline for decision-aware learning for contextual linear optimization, which solves stochastic linear optimization when cost coefficients can be predicted based on context information. We propose a decision-aware version of predict-then-optimize. We reweigh the prediction error by the decision regret incurred by an (unweighted) pilot estimator of costs to obtain a decision-aware predictor, then optimize with cost predictions from the decision-aware predictor. This method can be motivated as a finite-difference, iterate-independent approximation of the gradients of previously proposed end-to-end learning algorithms; it is also consistent with previously suggested intuition for end-to-end learning. This baseline is computationally easy to implement with readily available reweighted prediction oracles and linear optimization, and can be implemented with convex optimization so long as the prediction error minimization is convex. Empirically, we demonstrate that this approach can lead to improvements over a "predict-then-optimize" framework for settings with misspecified models, and is competitive with other end-to-end approaches. Therefore, due to its simplicity and ease of use, we suggest it as a simple baseline for end-to-end and decision-aware learning.
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Large language models (LLMs) have led to a series of breakthroughs in natural language processing (NLP), owing to their excellent understanding and generation abilities. Remarkably, what further sets these models apart is the massive amounts of world knowledge they internalize during pretraining. While many downstream applications provide the model with an informational context to aid its performance on the underlying task, how the model's world knowledge interacts with the factual information presented in the context remains under explored. As a desirable behavior, an LLM should give precedence to the context whenever it contains task-relevant information that conflicts with the model's memorized knowledge. This enables model predictions to be grounded in the context, which can then be used to update or correct specific model predictions without frequent retraining. By contrast, when the context is irrelevant to the task, the model should ignore it and fall back on its internal knowledge. In this paper, we undertake a first joint study of the aforementioned two properties, namely controllability and robustness, in the context of LLMs. We demonstrate that state-of-the-art T5 and PaLM (both pretrained and finetuned) could exhibit poor controllability and robustness, which do not scale with increasing model size. As a solution, we propose a novel method - Knowledge Aware FineTuning (KAFT) - to strengthen both controllability and robustness by incorporating counterfactual and irrelevant contexts to standard supervised datasets. Our comprehensive evaluation showcases the utility of KAFT across model architectures and sizes.
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Vision Transformer (ViT) has emerged as a competitive alternative to convolutional neural networks for various computer vision applications. Specifically, ViT multi-head attention layers make it possible to embed information globally across the overall image. Nevertheless, computing and storing such attention matrices incurs a quadratic cost dependency on the number of patches, limiting its achievable efficiency and scalability and prohibiting more extensive real-world ViT applications on resource-constrained devices. Sparse attention has been shown to be a promising direction for improving hardware acceleration efficiency for NLP models. However, a systematic counterpart approach is still missing for accelerating ViT models. To close the above gap, we propose a first-of-its-kind algorithm-hardware codesigned framework, dubbed ViTALiTy, for boosting the inference efficiency of ViTs. Unlike sparsity-based Transformer accelerators for NLP, ViTALiTy unifies both low-rank and sparse components of the attention in ViTs. At the algorithm level, we approximate the dot-product softmax operation via first-order Taylor attention with row-mean centering as the low-rank component to linearize the cost of attention blocks and further boost the accuracy by incorporating a sparsity-based regularization. At the hardware level, we develop a dedicated accelerator to better leverage the resulting workload and pipeline from ViTALiTy's linear Taylor attention which requires the execution of only the low-rank component, to further boost the hardware efficiency. Extensive experiments and ablation studies validate that ViTALiTy offers boosted end-to-end efficiency (e.g., $3\times$ faster and $3\times$ energy-efficient) under comparable accuracy, with respect to the state-of-the-art solution.
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Text-conditioned image generation models have recently achieved astonishing results in image quality and text alignment and are consequently employed in a fast-growing number of applications. Since they are highly data-driven, relying on billion-sized datasets randomly scraped from the internet, they also suffer, as we demonstrate, from degenerated and biased human behavior. In turn, they may even reinforce such biases. To help combat these undesired side effects, we present safe latent diffusion (SLD). Specifically, to measure the inappropriate degeneration due to unfiltered and imbalanced training sets, we establish a novel image generation test bed-inappropriate image prompts (I2P)-containing dedicated, real-world image-to-text prompts covering concepts such as nudity and violence. As our exhaustive empirical evaluation demonstrates, the introduced SLD removes and suppresses inappropriate image parts during the diffusion process, with no additional training required and no adverse effect on overall image quality or text alignment.
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In this paper, we extend previous self-supervised approaches for language identification by experimenting with Conformer based architecture in a multilingual pre-training paradigm. We find that pre-trained speech models optimally encode language discriminatory information in lower layers. Further, we demonstrate that the embeddings obtained from these layers are significantly robust to classify unseen languages and different acoustic environments without additional training. After fine-tuning a pre-trained Conformer model on the VoxLingua107 dataset, we achieve results similar to current state-of-the-art systems for language identification. More, our model accomplishes this with 5x less parameters. We open-source the model through the NVIDIA NeMo toolkit.
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We study the problem of efficient generative inference for Transformer models, in one of its most challenging settings: large deep models, with tight latency targets and long sequence lengths. Better understanding of the engineering tradeoffs for inference for large Transformer-based models is important as use cases of these models are growing rapidly throughout application areas. We develop a simple analytical model for inference efficiency to select the best multi-dimensional partitioning techniques optimized for TPU v4 slices based on the application requirements. We combine these with a suite of low-level optimizations to achieve a new Pareto frontier on the latency and model FLOPS utilization (MFU) tradeoffs on 500B+ parameter models that outperforms the FasterTransformer suite of benchmarks. We further show that with appropriate partitioning, the lower memory requirements of multiquery attention (i.e. multiple query heads share single key/value head) enables scaling up to 32x larger context lengths. Finally, we achieve a low-batch-size latency of 29ms per token during generation (using int8 weight quantization) and a 76% MFU during large-batch-size processing of input tokens, while supporting a long 2048-token context length on the PaLM 540B parameter model.
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BLOOM: A 176B-Parameter Open-Access Multilingual Language Model
Teven Le Scao , Angela Fan , Christopher Akiki , Ellie Pavlick , Suzana Ilić , Daniel Hesslow , Roman Castagné , Alexandra Sasha Luccioni , François Yvon , Matthias Gallé , Jonathan Tow , Alexander M. Rush , Stella Biderman , Albert Webson , Pawan Sasanka Ammanamanchi , Thomas Wang , Benoît Sagot , Niklas Muennighoff , Albert Villanova del Moral , Olatunji Ruwase , Rachel Bawden , Stas Bekman , Angelina McMillan-Major , Iz Beltagy , Huu Nguyen , Lucile Saulnier , Samson Tan , Pedro Ortiz Suarez , Victor Sanh , Hugo Laurençon , Yacine Jernite , Julien Launay , Margaret Mitchell , Colin Raffel , Aaron Gokaslan , Adi Simhi , Aitor Soroa , Alham Fikri Aji , Amit Alfassy , Anna Rogers , Ariel Kreisberg Nitzav , Canwen Xu , Chenghao Mou , Chris Emezue , Christopher Klamm , Colin Leong , Daniel van Strien , David Ifeoluwa Adelani , Dragomir Radev , Eduardo González Ponferrada , Efrat Levkovizh , Ethan Kim , Eyal Bar Natan , Francesco De Toni , Gérard Dupont , Germán Kruszewski , Giada Pistilli , Hady Elsahar , Hamza Benyamina , Hieu Tran , Ian Yu , Idris Abdulmumin , Isaac Johnson , Itziar Gonzalez-Dios , Javier de la Rosa , Jenny Chim , Jesse Dodge , Jian Zhu , Jonathan Chang , Jörg Frohberg , Joseph Tobing , Joydeep Bhattacharjee , Khalid Almubarak , Kimbo Chen , Kyle Lo , Leandro Von Werra , Leon Weber , Long Phan , Loubna Ben allal , Ludovic Tanguy , Manan Dey , Manuel Romero Muñoz , Maraim Masoud , María Grandury , Mario Šaško , Max Huang , Maximin Coavoux , Mayank Singh , Mike Tian-Jian Jiang , Minh Chien Vu , Mohammad A. Jauhar , Mustafa Ghaleb , Nishant Subramani , Nora Kassner , Nurulaqilla Khamis , Olivier Nguyen , Omar Espejel , Ona de Gibert , Paulo Villegas , Peter Henderson , Pierre Colombo , Priscilla Amuok , Quentin Lhoest , Rheza Harliman , Rishi Bommasani , Roberto Luis López , Rui Ribeiro , Salomey Osei , Sampo Pyysalo , Sebastian Nagel , Shamik Bose , Shamsuddeen Hassan Muhammad , Shanya Sharma , Shayne Longpre , Somaieh Nikpoor , Stanislav Silberberg , Suhas Pai , Sydney Zink , Tiago Timponi Torrent , Timo Schick , Tristan Thrush , Valentin Danchev , Vassilina Nikoulina , Veronika Laippala , Violette Lepercq , Vrinda Prabhu , Zaid Alyafeai , Zeerak Talat , Arun Raja , Benjamin Heinzerling , Chenglei Si , Elizabeth Salesky , Sabrina J. Mielke , Wilson Y. Lee , Abheesht Sharma , Andrea Santilli , Antoine Chaffin , Arnaud Stiegler , Debajyoti Datta , Eliza Szczechla , Gunjan Chhablani , Han Wang , Harshit Pandey , Hendrik Strobelt , Jason Alan Fries , Jos Rozen , Leo Gao , Lintang Sutawika , M Saiful Bari , Maged S. Al-shaibani , Matteo Manica , Nihal Nayak , Ryan Teehan , Samuel Albanie , Sheng Shen , Srulik Ben-David , Stephen H. Bach , Taewoon Kim , Tali Bers , Thibault Fevry , Trishala Neeraj , Urmish Thakker , Vikas Raunak , Xiangru Tang , Zheng-Xin Yong , Zhiqing Sun , Shaked Brody , Yallow Uri , Hadar Tojarieh , Adam Roberts , Hyung Won Chung , Jaesung Tae , Jason Phang , Ofir Press , Conglong Li , Deepak Narayanan , Hatim Bourfoune , Jared Casper , Jeff Rasley , Max Ryabinin , Mayank Mishra , Minjia Zhang , Mohammad Shoeybi , Myriam Peyrounette , Nicolas Patry , Nouamane Tazi , Omar Sanseviero , Patrick von Platen , Pierre Cornette , Pierre François Lavallée , Rémi Lacroix , Samyam Rajbhandari , Sanchit Gandhi , Shaden Smith , Stéphane Requena , Suraj Patil , Tim Dettmers , Ahmed Baruwa , Amanpreet Singh , Anastasia Cheveleva , Anne-Laure Ligozat , Arjun Subramonian , Aurélie Névéol , Charles Lovering , Dan Garrette , Deepak Tunuguntla , Ehud Reiter , Ekaterina Taktasheva , Ekaterina Voloshina , Eli Bogdanov , Genta Indra Winata , Hailey Schoelkopf , Jan-Christoph Kalo , Jekaterina Novikova , Jessica Zosa Forde , Jordan Clive , Jungo Kasai , Ken Kawamura , Liam Hazan , Marine Carpuat , Miruna Clinciu , Najoung Kim , Newton Cheng , Oleg Serikov , Omer Antverg , Oskar van der Wal , Rui Zhang , Ruochen Zhang , Sebastian Gehrmann , Shani Pais , Tatiana Shavrina , Thomas Scialom , Tian Yun , Tomasz Limisiewicz , Verena Rieser , Vitaly Protasov , Vladislav Mikhailov , Yada Pruksachatkun , Yonatan Belinkov , Zachary Bamberger , Zdeněk Kasner , Alice Rueda , Amanda Pestana , Amir Feizpour , Ammar Khan , Amy Faranak , Ana Santos , Anthony Hevia , Antigona Unldreaj , Arash Aghagol , Arezoo Abdollahi , Aycha Tammour , Azadeh HajiHosseini , Bahareh Behroozi , Benjamin Ajibade , Bharat Saxena , Carlos Muñoz Ferrandis , Danish Contractor , David Lansky , Davis David , Douwe Kiela , Duong A. Nguyen , Edward Tan , Emi Baylor , Ezinwanne Ozoani , Fatima Mirza , Frankline Ononiwu , Habib Rezanejad , Hessie Jones , Indrani Bhattacharya , Irene Solaiman , Irina Sedenko , Isar Nejadgholi , Jesse Passmore , Josh Seltzer , Julio Bonis Sanz , Karen Fort , Livia Dutra , Mairon Samagaio , Maraim Elbadri , Margot Mieskes , Marissa Gerchick , Martha Akinlolu , Michael McKenna , Mike Qiu , Muhammed Ghauri , Mykola Burynok , Nafis Abrar , Nazneen Rajani , Nour Elkott , Nour Fahmy , Olanrewaju Samuel , Ran An , Rasmus Kromann , Ryan Hao , Samira Alizadeh , Sarmad Shubber , Silas Wang , Sourav Roy , Sylvain Viguier , Thanh Le , Tobi Oyebade , Trieu Le , Yoyo Yang , Zach Nguyen , Abhinav Ramesh Kashyap , Alfredo Palasciano , Alison Callahan , Anima Shukla , Antonio Miranda-Escalada , Ayush Singh , Benjamin Beilharz , Bo Wang , Caio Brito , Chenxi Zhou , Chirag Jain , Chuxin Xu , Clémentine Fourrier , Daniel León Periñán , Daniel Molano , Dian Yu , Enrique Manjavacas , Fabio Barth , Florian Fuhrimann , Gabriel Altay , Giyaseddin Bayrak , Gully Burns , Helena U. Vrabec , Imane Bello , Ishani Dash , Jihyun Kang , John Giorgi , Jonas Golde , Jose David Posada , Karthik Rangasai Sivaraman , Lokesh Bulchandani , Lu Liu , Luisa Shinzato , Madeleine Hahn de Bykhovetz , Maiko Takeuchi , Marc Pàmies , Maria A Castillo , Marianna Nezhurina , Mario Sänger , Matthias Samwald , Michael Cullan , Michael Weinberg , Michiel De Wolf , Mina Mihaljcic , Minna Liu , Moritz Freidank , Myungsun Kang , Natasha Seelam , Nathan Dahlberg , Nicholas Michio Broad , Nikolaus Muellner , Pascale Fung , Patrick Haller , Ramya Chandrasekhar , Renata Eisenberg , Robert Martin , Rodrigo Canalli , Rosaline Su , Ruisi Su , Samuel Cahyawijaya , Samuele Garda , Shlok S Deshmukh , Shubhanshu Mishra , Sid Kiblawi , Simon Ott , Sinee Sang-aroonsiri , Srishti Kumar , Stefan Schweter , Sushil Bharati , Tanmay Laud , Théo Gigant , Tomoya Kainuma , Wojciech Kusa , Yanis Labrak , Yash Shailesh Bajaj , Yash Venkatraman , Yifan Xu , Yingxin Xu , Yu Xu , Zhe Tan , Zhongli Xie , Zifan Ye , Mathilde Bras , Younes Belkada , Thomas Wolf
分类: 自然语言处理
2022-11-09
Large language models (LLMs) have been shown to be able to perform new tasks based on a few demonstrations or natural language instructions. While these capabilities have led to widespread adoption, most LLMs are developed by resource-rich organizations and are frequently kept from the public. As a step towards democratizing this powerful technology, we present BLOOM, a 176B-parameter open-access language model designed and built thanks to a collaboration of hundreds of researchers. BLOOM is a decoder-only Transformer language model that was trained on the ROOTS corpus, a dataset comprising hundreds of sources in 46 natural and 13 programming languages (59 in total). We find that BLOOM achieves competitive performance on a wide variety of benchmarks, with stronger results after undergoing multitask prompted finetuning. To facilitate future research and applications using LLMs, we publicly release our models and code under the Responsible AI License.
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Time-resolved image sensors that capture light at pico-to-nanosecond timescales were once limited to niche applications but are now rapidly becoming mainstream in consumer devices. We propose low-cost and low-power imaging modalities that capture scene information from minimal time-resolved image sensors with as few as one pixel. The key idea is to flood illuminate large scene patches (or the entire scene) with a pulsed light source and measure the time-resolved reflected light by integrating over the entire illuminated area. The one-dimensional measured temporal waveform, called \emph{transient}, encodes both distances and albedoes at all visible scene points and as such is an aggregate proxy for the scene's 3D geometry. We explore the viability and limitations of the transient waveforms by themselves for recovering scene information, and also when combined with traditional RGB cameras. We show that plane estimation can be performed from a single transient and that using only a few more it is possible to recover a depth map of the whole scene. We also show two proof-of-concept hardware prototypes that demonstrate the feasibility of our approach for compact, mobile, and budget-limited applications.
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This paper presents a novel positive and negative set selection strategy for contrastive learning of medical images based on labels that can be extracted from clinical data. In the medical field, there exists a variety of labels for data that serve different purposes at different stages of a diagnostic and treatment process. Clinical labels and biomarker labels are two examples. In general, clinical labels are easier to obtain in larger quantities because they are regularly collected during routine clinical care, while biomarker labels require expert analysis and interpretation to obtain. Within the field of ophthalmology, previous work has shown that clinical values exhibit correlations with biomarker structures that manifest within optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans. We exploit this relationship between clinical and biomarker data to improve performance for biomarker classification. This is accomplished by leveraging the larger amount of clinical data as pseudo-labels for our data without biomarker labels in order to choose positive and negative instances for training a backbone network with a supervised contrastive loss. In this way, a backbone network learns a representation space that aligns with the clinical data distribution available. Afterwards, we fine-tune the network trained in this manner with the smaller amount of biomarker labeled data with a cross-entropy loss in order to classify these key indicators of disease directly from OCT scans. Our method is shown to outperform state of the art self-supervised methods by as much as 5% in terms of accuracy on individual biomarker detection.
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Modern statistical learning algorithms are capable of amazing flexibility, but struggle with interpretability. One possible solution is sparsity: making inference such that many of the parameters are estimated as being identically 0, which may be imposed through the use of nonsmooth penalties such as the $\ell_1$ penalty. However, the $\ell_1$ penalty introduces significant bias when high sparsity is desired. In this article, we retain the $\ell_1$ penalty, but define learnable penalty weights $\lambda_p$ endowed with hyperpriors. We start the article by investigating the optimization problem this poses, developing a proximal operator associated with the $\ell_1$ norm. We then study the theoretical properties of this variable-coefficient $\ell_1$ penalty in the context of penalized likelihood. Next, we investigate application of this penalty to Variational Bayes, developing a model we call the Sparse Bayesian Lasso which allows for behavior qualitatively like Lasso regression to be applied to arbitrary variational models. In simulation studies, this gives us the Uncertainty Quantification and low bias properties of simulation-based approaches with an order of magnitude less computation. Finally, we apply our methodology to a Bayesian lagged spatiotemporal regression model of internal displacement that occurred during the Iraqi Civil War of 2013-2017.
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Misinformation spread over social media has become an undeniable infodemic. However, not all spreading claims are made equal. If propagated, some claims can be destructive, not only on the individual level, but to organizations and even countries. Detecting claims that should be prioritized for fact-checking is considered the first step to fight against spread of fake news. With training data limited to a handful of languages, developing supervised models to tackle the problem over lower-resource languages is currently infeasible. Therefore, our work aims to investigate whether we can use existing datasets to train models for predicting worthiness of verification of claims in tweets in other languages. We present a systematic comparative study of six approaches for cross-lingual check-worthiness estimation across pairs of five diverse languages with the help of Multilingual BERT (mBERT) model. We run our experiments using a state-of-the-art multilingual Twitter dataset. Our results show that for some language pairs, zero-shot cross-lingual transfer is possible and can perform as good as monolingual models that are trained on the target language. We also show that in some languages, this approach outperforms (or at least is comparable to) state-of-the-art models.
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This letter explains an algorithm for finding a set of base functions. The method aims to capture the leading behavior of the dataset in terms of a few base functions. Implementation of the A-star search will help find these functions, while the gradient descent optimizes the parameters of the functions at each search step. We will show the resulting plots to compare the extrapolation with the unseen data.
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This work explores the zero-shot compositional learning ability of large pre-trained vision-language models(VLMs) within the prompt-based learning framework and propose a model (\textit{PromptCompVL}) to solve the compositonal zero-shot learning (CZSL) problem. \textit{PromptCompVL} makes two design choices: first, it uses a soft-prompting instead of hard-prompting to inject learnable parameters to reprogram VLMs for compositional learning. Second, to address the compositional challenge, it uses the soft-embedding layer to learn primitive concepts in different combinations. By combining both soft-embedding and soft-prompting, \textit{PromptCompVL} achieves state-of-the-art performance on the MIT-States dataset. Furthermore, our proposed model achieves consistent improvement compared to other CLIP-based methods which shows the effectiveness of the proposed prompting strategies for CZSL.
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Disentanglement of constituent factors of a sensory signal is central to perception and cognition and hence is a critical task for future artificial intelligence systems. In this paper, we present a compute engine capable of efficiently factorizing holographic perceptual representations by exploiting the computation-in-superposition capability of brain-inspired hyperdimensional computing and the intrinsic stochasticity associated with analog in-memory computing based on nanoscale memristive devices. Such an iterative in-memory factorizer is shown to solve at least five orders of magnitude larger problems that cannot be solved otherwise, while also significantly lowering the computational time and space complexity. We present a large-scale experimental demonstration of the factorizer by employing two in-memory compute chips based on phase-change memristive devices. The dominant matrix-vector multiply operations are executed at O(1) thus reducing the computational time complexity to merely the number of iterations. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate the ability to factorize visual perceptual representations reliably and efficiently.
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Automated emotion recognition in speech is a long-standing problem. While early work on emotion recognition relied on hand-crafted features and simple classifiers, the field has now embraced end-to-end feature learning and classification using deep neural networks. In parallel to these models, researchers have proposed several data augmentation techniques to increase the size and variability of existing labeled datasets. Despite many seminal contributions in the field, we still have a poor understanding of the interplay between the network architecture and the choice of data augmentation. Moreover, only a handful of studies demonstrate the generalizability of a particular model across multiple datasets, which is a prerequisite for robust real-world performance. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive evaluation of popular deep learning approaches for emotion recognition. To eliminate bias, we fix the model architectures and optimization hyperparameters using the VESUS dataset and then use repeated 5-fold cross validation to evaluate the performance on the IEMOCAP and CREMA-D datasets. Our results demonstrate that long-range dependencies in the speech signal are critical for emotion recognition and that speed/rate augmentation offers the most robust performance gain across models.
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Controllable summarization allows users to generate customized summaries with specified attributes. However, due to the lack of designated annotations of controlled summaries, existing works have to craft pseudo datasets by adapting generic summarization benchmarks. Furthermore, most research focuses on controlling single attributes individually (e.g., a short summary or a highly abstractive summary) rather than controlling a mix of attributes together (e.g., a short and highly abstractive summary). In this paper, we propose MACSum, the first human-annotated summarization dataset for controlling mixed attributes. It contains source texts from two domains, news articles and dialogues, with human-annotated summaries controlled by five designed attributes (Length, Extractiveness, Specificity, Topic, and Speaker). We propose two simple and effective parameter-efficient approaches for the new task of mixed controllable summarization based on hard prompt tuning and soft prefix tuning. Results and analysis demonstrate that hard prompt models yield the best performance on all metrics and human evaluations. However, mixed-attribute control is still challenging for summarization tasks. Our dataset and code are available at https://github.com/psunlpgroup/MACSum.
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We introduce a challenging decision-making task that we call active acquisition for multimodal temporal data (A2MT). In many real-world scenarios, input features are not readily available at test time and must instead be acquired at significant cost. With A2MT, we aim to learn agents that actively select which modalities of an input to acquire, trading off acquisition cost and predictive performance. A2MT extends a previous task called active feature acquisition to temporal decision making about high-dimensional inputs. Further, we propose a method based on the Perceiver IO architecture to address A2MT in practice. Our agents are able to solve a novel synthetic scenario requiring practically relevant cross-modal reasoning skills. On two large-scale, real-world datasets, Kinetics-700 and AudioSet, our agents successfully learn cost-reactive acquisition behavior. However, an ablation reveals they are unable to learn to learn adaptive acquisition strategies, emphasizing the difficulty of the task even for state-of-the-art models. Applications of A2MT may be impactful in domains like medicine, robotics, or finance, where modalities differ in acquisition cost and informativeness.
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Scene text images have different shapes and are subjected to various distortions, e.g. perspective distortions. To handle these challenges, the state-of-the-art methods rely on a rectification network, which is connected to the text recognition network. They form a linear pipeline which uses text rectification on all input images, even for images that can be recognized without it. Undoubtedly, the rectification network improves the overall text recognition performance. However, in some cases, the rectification network generates unnecessary distortions on images, resulting in incorrect predictions in images that would have otherwise been correct without it. In order to alleviate the unnecessary distortions, the portmanteauing of features is proposed. The portmanteau feature, inspired by the portmanteau word, is a feature containing information from both the original text image and the rectified image. To generate the portmanteau feature, a non-linear input pipeline with a block matrix initialization is presented. In this work, the transformer is chosen as the recognition network due to its utilization of attention and inherent parallelism, which can effectively handle the portmanteau feature. The proposed method is examined on 6 benchmarks and compared with 13 state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on various of the benchmarks.
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Word embeddings play a significant role in today's Natural Language Processing tasks and applications. While pre-trained models may be directly employed and integrated into existing pipelines, they are often fine-tuned to better fit with specific languages or domains. In this paper, we attempt to improve available embeddings in the uncovered niche of the Italian medical domain through the combination of Contrastive Learning (CL) and Knowledge Graph Embedding (KGE). The main objective is to improve the accuracy of semantic similarity between medical terms, which is also used as an evaluation task. Since the Italian language lacks medical texts and controlled vocabularies, we have developed a specific solution by combining preexisting CL methods (multi-similarity loss, contextualization, dynamic sampling) and the integration of KGEs, creating a new variant of the loss. Although without having outperformed the state-of-the-art, represented by multilingual models, the obtained results are encouraging, providing a significant leap in performance compared to the starting model, while using a significantly lower amount of data.
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Automatic keyword extraction (AKE) has gained more importance with the increasing amount of digital textual data that modern computing systems process. It has various applications in information retrieval (IR) and natural language processing (NLP), including text summarisation, topic analysis and document indexing. This paper proposes a simple but effective post-processing-based universal approach to improve the performance of any AKE methods, via an enhanced level of semantic-awareness supported by PoS-tagging. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach, we considered word types retrieved from a PoS-tagging step and two representative sources of semantic information -- specialised terms defined in one or more context-dependent thesauri, and named entities in Wikipedia. The above three steps can be simply added to the end of any AKE methods as part of a post-processor, which simply re-evaluate all candidate keywords following some context-specific and semantic-aware criteria. For five state-of-the-art (SOTA) AKE methods, our experimental results with 17 selected datasets showed that the proposed approach improved their performances both consistently (up to 100\% in terms of improved cases) and significantly (between 10.2\% and 53.8\%, with an average of 25.8\%, in terms of F1-score and across all five methods), especially when all the three enhancement steps are used. Our results have profound implications considering the ease to apply our proposed approach to any AKE methods and to further extend it.
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Recent developments in natural language generation (NLG) using neural language models have brought us closer than ever to the goal of building AI-powered creative writing tools. However, most prior work on human-AI collaboration in the creative writing domain has evaluated new systems with amateur writers, typically in contrived user studies of limited scope. In this work, we commissioned 13 professional, published writers from a diverse set of creative writing backgrounds to craft stories using Wordcraft, a text editor with built-in AI-powered writing assistance tools. Using interviews and participant journals, we discuss the potential of NLG to have significant impact in the creative writing domain--especially with respect to brainstorming, generation of story details, world-building, and research assistance. Experienced writers, more so than amateurs, typically have well-developed systems and methodologies for writing, as well as distinctive voices and target audiences. Our work highlights the challenges in building for these writers; NLG technologies struggle to preserve style and authorial voice, and they lack deep understanding of story contents. In order for AI-powered writing assistants to realize their full potential, it is essential that they take into account the diverse goals and expertise of human writers.
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Many recent perturbation studies have found unintuitive results on what does and does not matter when performing Natural Language Understanding (NLU) tasks in English. Coding properties, such as the order of words, can often be removed through shuffling without impacting downstream performances. Such insight may be used to direct future research into English NLP models. As many improvements in multilingual settings consist of wholesale adaptation of English approaches, it is important to verify whether those studies replicate or not in multilingual settings. In this work, we replicate a study on the importance of local structure, and the relative unimportance of global structure, in a multilingual setting. We find that the phenomenon observed on the English language broadly translates to over 120 languages, with a few caveats.
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To date, the best-performing blind super-resolution (SR) techniques follow one of two paradigms: A) generate and train a standard SR network on synthetic low-resolution - high-resolution (LR - HR) pairs or B) attempt to predict the degradations an LR image has suffered and use these to inform a customised SR network. Despite significant progress, subscribers to the former miss out on useful degradation information that could be used to improve the SR process. On the other hand, followers of the latter rely on weaker SR networks, which are significantly outperformed by the latest architectural advancements. In this work, we present a framework for combining any blind SR prediction mechanism with any deep SR network, using a metadata insertion block to insert prediction vectors into SR network feature maps. Through comprehensive testing, we prove that state-of-the-art contrastive and iterative prediction schemes can be successfully combined with high-performance SR networks such as RCAN and HAN within our framework. We show that our hybrid models consistently achieve stronger SR performance than both their non-blind and blind counterparts. Furthermore, we demonstrate our framework's robustness by predicting degradations and super-resolving images from a complex pipeline of blurring, noise and compression.
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Providing better language tools for low-resource and endangered languages is imperative for equitable growth. Recent progress with massively multilingual pretrained models has proven surprisingly effective at performing zero-shot transfer to a wide variety of languages. However, this transfer is not universal, with many languages not currently understood by multilingual approaches. It is estimated that only 72 languages possess a "small set of labeled datasets" on which we could test a model's performance, the vast majority of languages not having the resources available to simply evaluate performances on. In this work, we attempt to clarify which languages do and do not currently benefit from such transfer. To that end, we develop a general approach that requires only unlabelled text to detect which languages are not well understood by a cross-lingual model. Our approach is derived from the hypothesis that if a model's understanding is insensitive to perturbations to text in a language, it is likely to have a limited understanding of that language. We construct a cross-lingual sentence similarity task to evaluate our approach empirically on 350, primarily low-resource, languages.
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There are many potential benefits to news readers accessing diverse sources. Modern news aggregators do the hard work of organizing the news, offering readers a plethora of source options, but choosing which source to read remains challenging. We propose a new framework to assist readers in identifying source differences and gaining an understanding of news coverage diversity. The framework is based on the generation of Discord Questions: questions with a diverse answer pool, explicitly illustrating source differences. To assemble a prototype of the framework, we focus on two components: (1) discord question generation, the task of generating questions answered differently by sources, for which we propose an automatic scoring method, and create a model that improves performance from current question generation (QG) methods by 5%, (2) answer consolidation, the task of grouping answers to a question that are semantically similar, for which we collect data and repurpose a method that achieves 81% balanced accuracy on our realistic test set. We illustrate the framework's feasibility through a prototype interface. Even though model performance at discord QG still lags human performance by more than 15%, generated questions are judged to be more interesting than factoid questions and can reveal differences in the level of detail, sentiment, and reasoning of sources in news coverage.
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The first large-scale deployment of private federated learning uses differentially private counting in the continual release model as a subroutine (Google AI blog titled "Federated Learning with Formal Differential Privacy Guarantees"). In this case, a concrete bound on the error is very relevant to reduce the privacy parameter. The standard mechanism for continual counting is the binary mechanism. We present a novel mechanism and show that its mean squared error is both asymptotically optimal and a factor 10 smaller than the error of the binary mechanism. We also show that the constants in our analysis are almost tight by giving non-asymptotic lower and upper bounds that differ only in the constants of lower-order terms. Our algorithm is a matrix mechanism for the counting matrix and takes constant time per release. We also use our explicit factorization of the counting matrix to give an upper bound on the excess risk of the private learning algorithm of Denisov et al. (NeurIPS 2022). Our lower bound for any continual counting mechanism is the first tight lower bound on continual counting under approximate differential privacy. It is achieved using a new lower bound on a certain factorization norm, denoted by $\gamma_F(\cdot)$, in terms of the singular values of the matrix. In particular, we show that for any complex matrix, $A \in \mathbb{C}^{m \times n}$, \[ \gamma_F(A) \geq \frac{1}{\sqrt{m}}\|A\|_1, \] where $\|\cdot \|$ denotes the Schatten-1 norm. We believe this technique will be useful in proving lower bounds for a larger class of linear queries. To illustrate the power of this technique, we show the first lower bound on the mean squared error for answering parity queries.
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We present a conceptually simple and intuitive method to calculate and to measure the dissimilarities among 2D shapes. Several methods to interpret and to visualize the resulting dissimilarity matrix are presented and compared.
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Current methods for image-to-image translation produce compelling results, however, the applied transformation is difficult to control, since existing mechanisms are often limited and non-intuitive. We propose ParGAN, a generalization of the cycle-consistent GAN framework to learn image transformations with simple and intuitive controls. The proposed generator takes as input both an image and a parametrization of the transformation. We train this network to preserve the content of the input image while ensuring that the result is consistent with the given parametrization. Our approach does not require paired data and can learn transformations across several tasks and datasets. We show how, with disjoint image domains with no annotated parametrization, our framework can create smooth interpolations as well as learn multiple transformations simultaneously.
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Robot assistants are emerging as high-tech solutions to support people in everyday life. Following and assisting the user in the domestic environment requires flexible mobility to safely move in cluttered spaces. We introduce a new approach to person following for assistance and monitoring. Our methodology exploits an omnidirectional robotic platform to detach the computation of linear and angular velocities and navigate within the domestic environment without losing track of the assisted person. While linear velocities are managed by a conventional Dynamic Window Approach (DWA) local planner, we trained a Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) agent to predict optimized angular velocities commands and maintain the orientation of the robot towards the user. We evaluate our navigation system on a real omnidirectional platform in various indoor scenarios, demonstrating the competitive advantage of our solution compared to a standard differential steering following.
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Predicting metro passenger flow precisely is of great importance for dynamic traffic planning. Deep learning algorithms have been widely applied due to their robust performance in modelling non-linear systems. However, traditional deep learning algorithms completely discard the inherent graph structure within the metro system. Graph-based deep learning algorithms could utilise the graph structure but raise a few challenges, such as how to determine the weights of the edges and the shallow receptive field caused by the over-smoothing issue. To further improve these challenges, this study proposes a model based on GraphSAGE with an edge weights learner applied. The edge weights learner utilises socially meaningful features to generate edge weights. Hypergraph and temporal exploitation modules are also constructed as add-ons for better performance. A comparison study is conducted on the proposed algorithm and other state-of-art graph neural networks, where the proposed algorithm could improve the performance.
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Green Security Games with real-time information (GSG-I) add the real-time information about the agents' movement to the typical GSG formulation. Prior works on GSG-I have used deep reinforcement learning (DRL) to learn the best policy for the agent in such an environment without any need to store the huge number of state representations for GSG-I. However, the decision-making process of DRL methods is largely opaque, which results in a lack of trust in their predictions. To tackle this issue, we present an interpretable DRL method for GSG-I that generates visualization to explain the decisions taken by the DRL algorithm. We also show that this approach performs better and works well with a simpler training regimen compared to the existing method.
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Streets networks provide an invaluable source of information about the different temporal and spatial patterns emerging in our cities. These streets are often represented as graphs where intersections are modelled as nodes and streets as links between them. Previous work has shown that raster representations of the original data can be created through a learning algorithm on low-dimensional representations of the street networks. In contrast, models that capture high-level urban network metrics can be trained through convolutional neural networks. However, the detailed topological data is lost through the rasterisation of the street network. The models cannot recover this information from the image alone, failing to capture complex street network features. This paper proposes a model capable of inferring good representations directly from the street network. Specifically, we use a variational autoencoder with graph convolutional layers and a decoder that outputs a probabilistic fully-connected graph to learn latent representations that encode both local network structure and the spatial distribution of nodes. We train the model on thousands of street network segments and use the learnt representations to generate synthetic street configurations. Finally, we proposed a possible application to classify the urban morphology of different network segments by investigating their common characteristics in the learnt space.
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Dyadic and small group collaboration is an evolutionary advantageous behaviour and the need for such collaboration is a regular occurrence in day to day life. In this paper we estimate the perceived personality traits of individuals in dyadic and small groups over thin-slices of interaction on four multimodal datasets. We find that our transformer based predictive model performs similarly to human annotators tasked with predicting the perceived big-five personality traits of participants. Using this model we analyse the estimated perceived personality traits of individuals performing tasks in small groups and dyads. Permutation analysis shows that in the case of small groups undergoing collaborative tasks, the perceived personality of group members clusters, this is also observed for dyads in a collaborative problem solving task, but not in dyads under non-collaborative task settings. Additionally, we find that the group level average perceived personality traits provide a better predictor of group performance than the group level average self-reported personality traits.
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Purpose: Traffic volume in empty container depots has been highly volatile due to external factors. Forecasting the expected container truck traffic along with having a dynamic module to foresee the future workload plays a critical role in improving the work efficiency. This paper studies the relevant literature and designs a forecasting model addressing the aforementioned issues. Methodology: The paper develops a forecasting model to predict hourly work and traffic volume of container trucks in an empty container depot using a Bayesian Neural Network based model. Furthermore, the paper experiments with datasets with different characteristics to assess the model's forecasting range for various data sources. Findings: The real data of an empty container depot is utilized to develop a forecasting model and to later verify the capabilities of the model. The findings show the performance validity of the model and provide the groundwork to build an effective traffic and workload planning system for the empty container depot in question. Originality: This paper proposes a Bayesian deep learning-based forecasting model for traffic and workload of an empty container depot using real-world data. This designed and implemented forecasting model offers a solution with which every actor in the container truck transportation benefits from the optimized workload.
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Two central paradigms have emerged in the reinforcement learning (RL) community: online RL and offline RL. In the online RL setting, the agent has no prior knowledge of the environment, and must interact with it in order to find an $\epsilon$-optimal policy. In the offline RL setting, the learner instead has access to a fixed dataset to learn from, but is unable to otherwise interact with the environment, and must obtain the best policy it can from this offline data. Practical scenarios often motivate an intermediate setting: if we have some set of offline data and, in addition, may also interact with the environment, how can we best use the offline data to minimize the number of online interactions necessary to learn an $\epsilon$-optimal policy? In this work, we consider this setting, which we call the \textsf{FineTuneRL} setting, for MDPs with linear structure. We characterize the necessary number of online samples needed in this setting given access to some offline dataset, and develop an algorithm, \textsc{FTPedel}, which is provably optimal. We show through an explicit example that combining offline data with online interactions can lead to a provable improvement over either purely offline or purely online RL. Finally, our results illustrate the distinction between \emph{verifiable} learning, the typical setting considered in online RL, and \emph{unverifiable} learning, the setting often considered in offline RL, and show that there is a formal separation between these regimes.
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Adversarial perturbation plays a significant role in the field of adversarial robustness, which solves a maximization problem over the input data. We show that the backward propagation of such optimization can accelerate $2\times$ (and thus the overall optimization including the forward propagation can accelerate $1.5\times$), without any utility drop, if we only compute the output gradient but not the parameter gradient during the backward propagation.
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Our team, Hibikino-Musashi@Home (the shortened name is HMA), was founded in 2010. It is based in the Kitakyushu Science and Research Park, Japan. We have participated in the RoboCup@Home Japan open competition open platform league every year since 2010. Moreover, we participated in the RoboCup 2017 Nagoya as open platform league and domestic standard platform league teams. Currently, the Hibikino-Musashi@Home team has 20 members from seven different laboratories based in the Kyushu Institute of Technology. In this paper, we introduce the activities of our team and the technologies.
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Quantum-enhanced data science, also known as quantum machine learning (QML), is of growing interest as an application of near-term quantum computers. Variational QML algorithms have the potential to solve practical problems on real hardware, particularly when involving quantum data. However, training these algorithms can be challenging and calls for tailored optimization procedures. Specifically, QML applications can require a large shot-count overhead due to the large datasets involved. In this work, we advocate for simultaneous random sampling over both the dataset as well as the measurement operators that define the loss function. We consider a highly general loss function that encompasses many QML applications, and we show how to construct an unbiased estimator of its gradient. This allows us to propose a shot-frugal gradient descent optimizer called Refoqus (REsource Frugal Optimizer for QUantum Stochastic gradient descent). Our numerics indicate that Refoqus can save several orders of magnitude in shot cost, even relative to optimizers that sample over measurement operators alone.
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Scene text recognition (STR) involves the task of reading text in cropped images of natural scenes. Conventional models in STR employ convolutional neural network (CNN) followed by recurrent neural network in an encoder-decoder framework. In recent times, the transformer architecture is being widely adopted in STR as it shows strong capability in capturing long-term dependency which appears to be prominent in scene text images. Many researchers utilized transformer as part of a hybrid CNN-transformer encoder, often followed by a transformer decoder. However, such methods only make use of the long-term dependency mid-way through the encoding process. Although the vision transformer (ViT) is able to capture such dependency at an early stage, its utilization remains largely unexploited in STR. This work proposes the use of a transformer-only model as a simple baseline which outperforms hybrid CNN-transformer models. Furthermore, two key areas for improvement were identified. Firstly, the first decoded character has the lowest prediction accuracy. Secondly, images of different original aspect ratios react differently to the patch resolutions while ViT only employ one fixed patch resolution. To explore these areas, Pure Transformer with Integrated Experts (PTIE) is proposed. PTIE is a transformer model that can process multiple patch resolutions and decode in both the original and reverse character orders. It is examined on 7 commonly used benchmarks and compared with over 20 state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms them and obtains state-of-the-art results in most benchmarks.
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An effective aggregation of node features into a graph-level representation via readout functions is an essential step in numerous learning tasks involving graph neural networks. Typically, readouts are simple and non-adaptive functions designed such that the resulting hypothesis space is permutation invariant. Prior work on deep sets indicates that such readouts might require complex node embeddings that can be difficult to learn via standard neighborhood aggregation schemes. Motivated by this, we investigate the potential of adaptive readouts given by neural networks that do not necessarily give rise to permutation invariant hypothesis spaces. We argue that in some problems such as binding affinity prediction where molecules are typically presented in a canonical form it might be possible to relax the constraints on permutation invariance of the hypothesis space and learn a more effective model of the affinity by employing an adaptive readout function. Our empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of neural readouts on more than 40 datasets spanning different domains and graph characteristics. Moreover, we observe a consistent improvement over standard readouts (i.e., sum, max, and mean) relative to the number of neighborhood aggregation iterations and different convolutional operators.
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A major concern of Machine Learning (ML) models is their opacity. They are deployed in an increasing number of applications where they often operate as black boxes that do not provide explanations for their predictions. Among others, the potential harms associated with the lack of understanding of the models' rationales include privacy violations, adversarial manipulations, and unfair discrimination. As a result, the accountability and transparency of ML models have been posed as critical desiderata by works in policy and law, philosophy, and computer science. In computer science, the decision-making process of ML models has been studied by developing accountability and transparency methods. Accountability methods, such as adversarial attacks and diagnostic datasets, expose vulnerabilities of ML models that could lead to malicious manipulations or systematic faults in their predictions. Transparency methods explain the rationales behind models' predictions gaining the trust of relevant stakeholders and potentially uncovering mistakes and unfairness in models' decisions. To this end, transparency methods have to meet accountability requirements as well, e.g., being robust and faithful to the underlying rationales of a model. This thesis presents my research that expands our collective knowledge in the areas of accountability and transparency of ML models developed for complex reasoning tasks over text.
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Designing safety-critical control for robotic manipulators is challenging, especially in a cluttered environment. First, the actual trajectory of a manipulator might deviate from the planned one due to the complex collision environments and non-trivial dynamics, leading to collision; Second, the feasible space for the manipulator is hard to obtain since the explicit distance functions between collision meshes are unknown. By analyzing the relationship between the safe set and the controlled invariant set, this paper proposes a data-driven control barrier function (CBF) construction method, which extracts CBF from distance samples. Specifically, the CBF guarantees the controlled invariant property for considering the system dynamics. The data-driven method samples the distance function and determines the safe set. Then, the CBF is synthesized based on the safe set by a scenario-based sum of square (SOS) program. Unlike most existing linearization based approaches, our method reserves the volume of the feasible space for planning without approximation, which helps find a solution in a cluttered environment. The control law is obtained by solving a CBF-based quadratic program in real time, which works as a safe filter for the desired planning-based controller. Moreover, our method guarantees safety with the proven probabilistic result. Our method is validated on a 7-DOF manipulator in both real and virtual cluttered environments. The experiments show that the manipulator is able to execute tasks where the clearance between obstacles is in millimeters.
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Despite the rapid progress of open-domain generation-based conversational agents, most deployed systems treat dialogue contexts as single-turns, while systems dealing with multi-turn contexts are less studied. There is a lack of a reliable metric for evaluating multi-turn modelling, as well as an effective solution for improving it. In this paper, we focus on an essential component of multi-turn generation-based conversational agents: context attention distribution, i.e. how systems distribute their attention on dialogue's context. For evaluation of this component, We introduce a novel attention-mechanism-based metric: DAS ratio. To improve performance on this component, we propose an optimization strategy that employs self-contained distractions. Our experiments on the Ubuntu chatlogs dataset show that models with comparable perplexity can be distinguished by their ability on context attention distribution. Our proposed optimization strategy improves both non-hierarchical and hierarchical models on the proposed metric by about 10% from baselines.
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When building state-of-the-art speech translation models, the need for large computational resources is a significant obstacle due to the large training data size and complex models. The availability of pre-trained models is a promising opportunity to build strong speech translation systems efficiently. In a first step, we investigate efficient strategies to build cascaded and end-to-end speech translation systems based on pre-trained models. Using this strategy, we can train and apply the models on a single GPU. While the end-to-end models show superior translation performance to cascaded ones, the application of this technology has a limitation on the need for additional end-to-end training data. In a second step, we proposed an additional similarity loss to encourage the model to generate similar hidden representations for speech and transcript. Using this technique, we can increase the data efficiency and improve the translation quality by 6 BLEU points in scenarios with limited end-to-end training data.
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Business documents come in a variety of structures, formats and information needs which makes information extraction a challenging task. Due to these variations, having a document generic model which can work well across all types of documents and for all the use cases seems far-fetched. For document-specific models, we would need customized document-specific labels. We introduce DoSA (Document Specific Automated Annotations), which helps annotators in generating initial annotations automatically using our novel bootstrap approach by leveraging document generic datasets and models. These initial annotations can further be reviewed by a human for correctness. An initial document-specific model can be trained and its inference can be used as feedback for generating more automated annotations. These automated annotations can be reviewed by human-in-the-loop for the correctness and a new improved model can be trained using the current model as pre-trained model before going for the next iteration. In this paper, our scope is limited to Form like documents due to limited availability of generic annotated datasets, but this idea can be extended to a variety of other documents as more datasets are built. An open-source ready-to-use implementation is made available on GitHub https://github.com/neeleshkshukla/DoSA.
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This paper presents miCSE, a mutual information-based Contrastive learning framework that significantly advances the state-of-the-art in few-shot sentence embedding. The proposed approach imposes alignment between the attention pattern of different views during contrastive learning. Learning sentence embeddings with miCSE entails enforcing the syntactic consistency across augmented views for every single sentence, making contrastive self-supervised learning more sample efficient. As a result, the proposed approach shows strong performance in the few-shot learning domain. While it achieves superior results compared to state-of-the-art methods on multiple benchmarks in few-shot learning, it is comparable in the full-shot scenario. The proposed approach is conceptually simple, easy to implement and optimize, yet empirically powerful. This study opens up avenues for efficient self-supervised learning methods that are more robust than current contrastive methods for sentence embedding.
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Deep learning-based full-reference image quality assessment (FR-IQA) models typically rely on the feature distance between the reference and distorted images. However, the underlying assumption of these models that the distance in the deep feature domain could quantify the quality degradation does not scientifically align with the invariant texture perception, especially when the images are generated artificially by neural networks. In this paper, we bring a radical shift in inferring the quality with learned features and propose the Deep Image Dependency (DID) based FR-IQA model. The feature dependency facilitates the comparisons of deep learning features in a high-order manner with Brownian distance covariance, which is characterized by the joint distribution of the features from reference and test images, as well as their marginal distributions. This enables the quantification of the feature dependency against nonlinear transformation, which is far beyond the computation of the numerical errors in the feature space. Experiments on image quality prediction, texture image similarity, and geometric invariance validate the superior performance of our proposed measure.
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Deep learning techniques have greatly benefited computer-aided diagnostic systems. However, unlike other fields, in medical imaging, acquiring large fine-grained annotated datasets such as 3D tumour segmentation is challenging due to the high cost of manual annotation and privacy regulations. This has given interest to weakly-supervise methods to utilize the weakly labelled data for tumour segmentation. In this work, we propose a weakly supervised approach to obtain regions of interest using binary class labels. Furthermore, we propose a novel objective function to train the generator model based on a pretrained binary classification model. Finally, we apply our method to the brain tumour segmentation problem in MRI.
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Predicting the presence of major depressive disorder (MDD) using behavioural and cognitive signals is a highly non-trivial task. The heterogeneous clinical profile of MDD means that any given speech, facial expression and/or observed cognitive pattern may be associated with a unique combination of depressive symptoms. Conventional discriminative machine learning models potentially lack the complexity to robustly model this heterogeneity. Bayesian networks, however, may instead be well-suited to such a scenario. These networks are probabilistic graphical models that efficiently describe the joint probability distribution over a set of random variables by explicitly capturing their conditional dependencies. This framework provides further advantages over standard discriminative modelling by offering the possibility to incorporate expert opinion in the graphical structure of the models, generating explainable model predictions, informing about the uncertainty of predictions, and naturally handling missing data. In this study, we apply a Bayesian framework to capture the relationships between depression, depression symptoms, and features derived from speech, facial expression and cognitive game data collected at thymia.
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A growing number of Machine Learning Frameworks recently made Deep Learning accessible to a wider audience of engineers, scientists, and practitioners, by allowing straightforward use of complex neural network architectures and algorithms. However, since deep learning is rapidly evolving, not only through theoretical advancements but also with respect to hardware and software engineering, ML frameworks often lose backward compatibility and introduce technical debt that can lead to bottlenecks and sub-optimal resource utilization. Moreover, the focus is in most cases not on deep learning engineering, but rather on new models and theoretical advancements. In this work, however, we focus on engineering, more specifically on the data loading pipeline in the PyTorch Framework. We designed a series of benchmarks that outline performance issues of certain steps in the data loading process. Our findings show that for classification tasks that involve loading many files, like images, the training wall-time can be significantly improved. With our new, modified ConcurrentDataloader we can reach improvements in GPU utilization and significantly reduce batch loading time, up to 12X. This allows for the use of the cloud-based, S3-like object storage for datasets, and have comparable training time as if datasets are stored on local drives.
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